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Genital

Genital

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Genital is the common sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which cause discomfort to the scrotum, scrotum contents, the testicles and supporting structures. This is very common in all age group including the young adults and middle-aged men. If the problem is not treated at the time this may lead to a dangerous health problem.

Symptom

  • Flesh-coloured growths or lumps around your penis, anus or upper thighs
  • Itching or bleeding from your genitals
  • A change in the normal flow of pee (for example, sideways).

Prevention

  • Remember to cover your warts with protection, while having sex.
  • Use new latex gloves for rimming and fingering
  • Avoid touching and rubbing the wart, as this causes the infection.
  • If you are indulged with multiple partners, it’s important to use condoms and have regular STI tests.

Causes

  • Sex without a condom or dental dam
  • Oral sex without a condom
  • Sharing sex toys

How are genital warts treated?

Basically, there is no cure for this virus, but there are some chances that the body may be able to clear the virus over time. The only treatment is to remove warts and the treatment depends upon the type of warts you have. The two main types of treatment are enlisted below:

  • Applying a lotion, cream or chemicals to the warts
  • Destroying warts by heating, freezing, or removing them.

What is a vasectomy?

The term “vasectomy” is derived from the tubes name which is blocked during the procedure: vas deferens. A vasectomy is a simple surgery done to cut or block the small tubes that carry sperm, so that sperm can’t leave your body and cause pregnancy. This is the quick procedure and person get discharge from the hospital the same day. Also, it’s an extremely effective process to prevent pregnancy — almost 100%.

Vasectomy is the permanent process so they can’t be reversed, which means you would not able to make anyone pregnant once it is done.

There are two types of vasectomies:
  • The incision method, and
  • The no-scalpel (no-cut) method.

A vasectomy is performed by the urologist, a doctor who specializes in the male reproductive system and male urinary tract.

1. With the incision method, one or two small cuts are made in the scrotum by the doctor to access the vas deferens. Through this cut, the small section of the vas deferens is cut out and removed. The doctor cauterizes (seal with heat) the ends and tie them with stitches. And the same procedure is performed by the doctor on the other testicle, it can be done through the same opening or through a second scrotal incision. When the vas deferens has been tied off from both the testicle, the doctor use a few stitches to close the opening in the scrotum.

2. In the "no-scalpel" method, at the one side of the scrotum, a small puncture hole is. The doctor finds out the vas deferens under the skin and pulls it out through the hole. Vas deferens is cut and a small section is also removed. The ends are either cauterized and the same procedure is then performed on the other testicle. As the puncture hole is extremely small so, no stitches are needed in this method.

FAQ

Q: What is urology?

Urology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of the male reproductive tract and urinary tract. Others specialize in urology are enlisted below:

  • Female urology-which deals with a woman’s reproductive and urinary tract
  • Male infertility-which deal with treatment used to prevent a man from perceiving a baby with his partner
  • Neurourology- which deals with urinary problems caused due to the nervous system
  • Pediatric urology-which deals with urinary problems in children
  • Urologic oncology- which deals with the cancers of the urinary system, including the bladder, prostate, kidneys and testicles

Q: BPH/LUTS

Also known as prostate gland enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition in men as they get older. In the prostate gland get enlarged and cause uncomfortable urinary symptoms such as:

  • Blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder
  • The problem associated with the bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems.

Q: Symptoms of BPH/LUTS

Common signs and symptoms associated with BPH are known as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Some of the common symptoms are enlisted below:

  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Increased frequency of urination at night
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Weak urine stream
  • Dripping at the end of urination
  • Incapability to completely empty the bladder
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inability to urinate
  • Blood in the urine
  • Bladder or kidney stones
  • Problems with nerves that control the bladder
  • Cancer of the prostate or bladder

Q: Risk factors

  1. Ageing.
  2. A third of men experience the symptoms at the age of 60 and the Prostate gland enlargement causes signs and symptoms are rarely observed in men younger than age 40.
  3. Family history
  4. You are more likely to have this problem if some in your blood relative, such as a father, brother are with prostate problems.
  5. Diabetes and heart disease
  6. Studies reveal that diabetes, heart disease and use of beta blockers increase the risk of BPH.
  7. Lifestyle
  8. Obesity increases the risk of BPH, while it can be lower down by daily exercise.

Q: Complications

Complications of an enlarged prostate can include:

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) Inability to empty the bladder properly, increase the risk of infection in the urinary tract. If are you are suffering from frequent UTIs, surgery is required to remove part of the prostate.
  • Bladder stones are again caused by an inability to completely empty the bladder. Bladder stones lead to the major health problem including infection, blood in the urine, bladder irritation and obstruction of urine flow.
  • Bladder damage if the bladder is not emptied completely, it can stretch and get weaken over time. As a result, the muscular wall of the bladder fails to contracts properly and make it harder empty your bladder.
  • Kidney damage when the bladder is not emptied properly it put pressure on the bladder and it can directly damage the kidneys. Also, bladder infections can reach the kidneys. Having an enlarged prostate can lead to developing prostate cancer.

Q: What are the management options?

While talking about the management it’s really important to get in touch with the doctor about the different risks and benefits. Basically, there are three ways of managing BPH are:

  • Watchful waiting
  • Medical treatment
  • Surgery

Q: Watchful Waiting

Medication or surgery are very closely associated with the complication so the watchful waiting is a good choice. Watchful waiting simply involves the simple and the regular check with your doctor about your symptoms. You may be able to treat your symptoms by making a small difference to your lifestyle. These “lifestyle changes” is also a helpful method for those are opting for medical treatment or surgery. These changes include:

  • Proper care of your other medical conditions
  • Restricting fluid intake before going to bed
  • Avoiding smoking, caffeinated drinks and spicy foods
  • The timing you’re voiding
  • Doing pelvic floor exercises
  • Treating any constipation
  • ensure the optimum blood sugar control

Q: Medical treatment

Medications for treating BPH are a relatively new concept, so only fewer men know this. Generally, the medications are effective method but this involves few and predictable side effects and they are meant to be taken a lifetime. Three main classes of medications are enlisted below:

  • Alpha-blockers
  • 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors
  • PDE5Is

In special cases, some other medications are required to treat your BPH, such as anticholinergic, oxybutynin and tolterodine, these are basically to relax the bladder and may improve symptoms of BPH. Always get in touch with the doctor before taking these medications causes complication such as:

  • They can boost up the amount of urine leftover after urination.
  • They can also cause constipation and dry mouth.

Non-pharmacologic treatment: herbal remedies and treatments are also available such as saw palmetto.

Q: Surgery

Surgery for BPH is done “transurethrally” – which means it is done through the urethra, and there is no need for an incision. The surgery is done in the operating room, where patients are usually frozen from the waist down. Through this surgery, the obstructing tissue is removed from the inside. Within the one day, you get discharged from the hospital. Possible risks of surgery are:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Incontinence (leaking urine)
  • Failure of surgery to improve symptoms
  • TUR syndrome

Q: What are the common causes of the problem in the urinary system?

There are many common causes for the urinary problem. Some of them are enlisted below:

  • Ageing, sickness, or injury can lead to problems in the urinary system.
  • Diabetes and kidney stone
  • An enlarged prostate
  • Inability to emptied the bladder completely
  • An inability to willingly control urination
  • An inability to empty the bladder completely
  • An abnormal narrowing of the urethra
  • A past diagnosis of a UTI
  • Medication that suppresses the immune system

Q: Are there certain foods I can avoid that may contribute to bladder problems?

Yes, you need to remove the certain food item from your list, if you are suffering from the bladder. Once you added again in your list the symptoms will come back and the problem will be regenerated. In addition to sugar, there are many more food items that you need to avoid during UTIs. Some of them are enlisted below:

  • Alcohol
  • Red meat
  • Dairy products
  • Caffeine, as it decreases the blood flow to the bladder
  • Corn, and corn-fed animals
  • Fish
  • Potatoes, rice and wheat
  • Alcoholic beverages

Q: What I can do to promote by the urinary system?

  • Drink enough fluids, especially water
  • Limit alcohol and caffeine
  • Eat plenty of high-fiber foods like whole grains, vegetables, and fruit
  • Drinking enough water, and being physically active can help prevent constipation.
  • Keep a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly
  • Use the bathroom when needed
  • Fully empty the bladder when urinating.
  • Urinate after sex.
  • Wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes

Q: What I should do if bladder problems are affecting my sex life?

  • Bladder problem is more likely to affect sex life so it the right choice is to discuss your symptoms with your doctor.
  • Don’t fear and share your discomforts honestly with your partner.
  • In cases, if you are seriously affected by urinary distress give a visit to the counsellor or therapist.
  • Attend the session with a pelvic floor physical therapist, which can address your symptoms in a better way and assist you in a better way regarding your sex life.

Q: What lifestyle choices help prevent incontinence?

It is really important to prevent urinary and faecal incontinence as if they are not prevented and treated at the time they may lead to some serious health issues. Here are some easy step through which you can prevent incontinence and lead a healthy life

  • Drink plenty of fluids especially water
  • Eat a high-fiber diet including fruits and green vegetables
  • Stay physically active by performing the exercise
  • Practice good toilet habits
  • Make healthy lifestyle choices.

Q: How does ageing effects the occurrence of incontinence?

Diseases and injuries are not only the cause of incontinence. Ageing also contributes to, ageing leads to many physical changes which occur naturally. These changes affect our whole body including nerves, organs and muscles that control continence. By ageing muscles loses their strength, nerves will not function properly, and tissue and organs lose their ability to stretch. Same as in the case of bladder muscles may lose the ability to store urine and this leads to the occurrence of incontinence.

Q: What are the ways to prevent bladder cancer recurrence?

Choosing a healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent bladder cancer recurrence and there are many things that you can add up to your routine to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Some of them are enlisted below:

  • Eat 2½ cups of vegetables and fruits each day
  • Limit the use of alcohol and red meat
  • Take part I physical exercise and try to exercise 150 min per week
  • Quit smoking

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